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Open Access Original Research Article

Ecology and Protein Composition of Polypedates leucomystax (Gravenhorst, 1829) (Anura: Rhacophoridae) Foam Nests from Peninsular Malaysia

Shahriza Shahrudin, Mohd Nazri Ismail, Soon Hong Kwan, Nazalan Najimudin

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34211

The four-lined tree frog, Polypedates leucomystax, spawns its eggs in a moist structure called a foam nest. Four foam nests constructed by this species were collected from the Sungai Sedim Recreational Forest, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. Two foam nests were found deposited on the leaves of low vegetation hanging over a rock pool. One was attached inside a water tank, and one was found on grass near an ephemeral puddle. In the laboratory, the foam nests were freeze-dried and the protein concentrations quantified, fractionated, and analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Twenty-two proteins, including seven enzymes, six structural proteins, five regulatory proteins, three receptors, and one antimicrobial peptide (AMP) were found in the foam nests. The function of the AMP (brevinin-2 type) is believed to protect the frog eggs from pathogenic microorganisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity Analysis of Soursop (Annona muricata L.) in West Java Region of Indonesia Using RAPD Markers

A. E. Z. Hasan, N. Bermawie, H. Julistiono, E. I. Riyanti, Hasim ., I. M. Artika, P. Khana

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34354

Aims: The aim of this study was determine the genetic diversity of Annona muricata L. using molecular random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Amplification of genomic DNA of 9 samples using RAPD analysis yielded 57 fragment, of which 30 were polymorphic, with an average of 6 polymorphic fragment per primer.

Study Design: The data was analysed with SIMQUAL program of NTSYS-pc (Version 2.02), and similarities between accessions were estimated using the Jaccard’s coefficient calculated as J = A / (N - D), where A is the number of positive matches (that is, presence of band in both samples), D is the number of negative matches (that is, absence of band in both samples) and N is the total sample size including both the number of matches and unmatches. Dendrogram was created from the resultant similarity matrices using the UPGMA method following SAHN function of NTSYS-pc (Version 2.02).

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted from September 2014 to March 2015. The analysis of genetic diversity was done in the Biochemistry Laboratory and the Molecular Biology Laboratory of Plant II, Agronomy and Horticulture Faculty of Agriculture Bogor Agricultural University.

Methodology: Plant material from West Java, DNA extraction after that primer screening and DNA amplification.  Data analysis and Electrophoresis of amplified product.

Results: The genetic distance was calculated based on Jaccard’s similarity coefficient using SIMQUAL program in NTSYS-pc software to clarify the genetic relationships. An UPGMA dendrogram was constructed using NYSYSpc 2.10 software. A clear divergence between the two related species was found from the cluster analysis. Jaccard similarity coefficient of soursop ranged from 0.451 to 0.902 which revealed a wide range of genetic identity. Based on this value it was noticed that the relationship between soursop sample was closely. High similarity coefficient of 0.902 was measured between; the sample GRT3 with CJR2 and CJR3. According to analysis of the Jaccard similarity coefficient, the sample SKB2 with SKB1 had low similarity coefficient (0.451). This indicated that both the accessions were genetically distant.

Conclusion: Primary elected to amplify DNA Annona muricata L. produces two main groups. Group A consists of 4 samples (GRT1, CJR1, SKB1, GRT 2) and group B consisted of 5 samples (GRT3, CJR2, CJR3, SKB2, SKB3).`

Open Access Original Research Article

Population Dynamics and Infestation Rate of Fruit Flies in Stone Fruits in São Paulo State, Brazil

Adalton Raga, Laís Ívina Silva de Paula, Miguel Francisco de Souza-Filho, Jairo Lopes de Castro

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34005

Fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) are considered key pests in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) crops in Brazil, causing both fruit losses and increased fruit costs due to greater use of spray insecticides. To measure the degree of infestation, for this study mature fruits were randomly collected over 2004 - 2006 period from a canopy of 34 varieties of peaches, nectarines and plums, as well as from ungrafted Mume and Okinawa rootstocks in the southwestern region of the São Paulo state, Brazil. Recovered fruit fly pupae were kept in a small cage until adult emergence. Except for “Harry Pickstone”, all other stone-fruit varieties were infested by Tephritidae. From 1,454 Tephritidae pupae, 1,310 adults emerged. We found 669 Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (361 females and 308 males) and 641 Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (297 females and 344 males). The three varieties of nectarine (Josefina, Rosalina and Rubro-sol) studied were highly susceptible to A. fraterculus, having average rates of infestation above 1.60 adult per fruit. Peaks of both fruit flies species occurred between october and december 2004.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Use of Ozone-air Mixture for Reduction of Microbial Contamination in Grain Brewing Raw Material

Lyudmila Tretyak, Maksim Rebezov, Abduvali Toshev, Rustem Zalilov, Lubov Prokhasko, AItynay Abuova, Olga Loretts, Eleonora Okuskhanova, Tatiana Zaitseva

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33292

Considering the fact that different types of microbiological impurities of grain brewing raw materials (barley and malt) significantly influence the organoleptic properties of beer and leading to expressed consumer rejection, the efficient ways of preventing mycotoxins from entering the wort, and eventually the finished beer are offered. The influence of various ways of sterilization of grain brewing raw materials has been experimentally studied. The effectiveness of the processing method is estimated on the change of the standardized microbiological indicators of microbial population of the surface and deep layers (endosperms) of barley and malt. The Influence of ozone-air mixture to internal (sub epidermal) and surface (epiphytic) micro flora of brewing barley and malt is investigated. The technological scheme of sterilization and periodic drying of malt in a fluid bed of grain raw materials and the function chart of automation of the process are offered. The recommendations for granaries of the brewing enterprises equipped with installations of drying and sterilization are provided. The optimum concentration of ozone -air necessary for sterilization of grain and technological capacities of beer production line is also recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aflatoxigenic Fungi Associated with Some Medicinal Plants

Fatma F. Migahed, Manar. M. Abdel-Gwad, Sherif R. Mohamed

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34797

Aim: A total of one hundred and forty four samples belonging to 48 kinds of dried medicinal plants collected from different markets in Mansoura city, Dakahlia governorate were examined for the natural occurrence of molds and aflatoxins.

Methods: All the samples were analyzed for aflatoxin contamination using TLC and HPLC techniques.

Results: There is a high occurrence of the various fungal population of the analyzed samples and their counts ranged between 5-100 colonies/g. Thirty six species and 1 variety belonging to 11 genera were isolated using standard potato dextrose agar plate method. The most heavily contaminated samples were observed in anise and linseeds in order of magnitude of 95 and 100 colony/g, while sumac, clove and cinnamon revealed no fungal contamination indicating their antifungal properties. The genus Aspergillus(91.7%) was encountered as the most frequent fungal genus recorded, followed by Penicillium (68.8%). The most frequent fungal species were Aspergillus nigerPenicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus var columnaris and Aspergillus flavus comprising 75%, 56.3%, 41.7% and 33.3% in their frequency of occurrence. Out of 151 isolates of Aspergillus flavus group isolated from various samples, 67 isolates (44.4%) were found to be toxigenic and their potential to produce aflatoxins was in the range of 0.1 to 818.2 ng/ml of culture filtrate. Of 30 medicinal plant samples screened, 19 samples (63.3%) were found contaminated with aflatoxins in the range of 1.5 to 724.6 ng/g.

Conclusion: These results revealed that the selected medicinal plants are heavily contaminated with fungal strains and more strict measures must be taken to prevent mold contamination and hence aflatoxins production in medicinal plants.