Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Propolis on Humoral Immunity in Laboratory Animals

Salim H. H. AL-Greti

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34252

Background: Propolis is a material that collected by bees from different plants and unites with beeswax and enzymes of salivary glands of fly.

Aim: The study was designed to assess humoral immunity activity of propolis against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA bacteria.

Materials and Methods: Sixteen male white New Zealand rabbits included in this study, that divided into two groups (8 rabbits at each one), group I received orally Ethanolic Extract Propolis (EEP) at 20% concentration per day for lasting twenty days, while group II have received dimethyl sulfoxide as control group. All animals injected in intraperitoneal (IP) with six doses of 108cfu/ milliliter of killed somatic antigen of MRSA bacteria after ten days from last dose of administration of EEP. Blood samples were taken by heart puncture from all animals to estimate the level of immunological parameters immunoglobulin M and G (IgM&IgG) by single radial immune diffusion (SRID) technique.

Results: Results revealed to increase significantly (p < 0.05) the mean value of IgM and IgG in group I as compared with group II.

Conclusion: It was pointed propolis induce humoral immunity against bacterial MRSA antigen in vivo.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Evaluation and Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) of 1,ω-bis[4-[(arylideneamino/ alkylideneamino/ or arylalkylideneamino)carbamoyl]phenoxy]alkanes

Nasser S. A. M. Khalil, Noha M. Mohamed

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34348

Different 1,ω-bis[(4-[(arylideneamino/alkylideneamino/ or arylalkylideneamino)carbamoyl]phenoxy]a-

lkanes 1-20, 25 were synthesized and their inhibitory effects against different strains of Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli), yeast (Candida albicans) and fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium italicum and Syncephalastrum racemosum) were evaluated using the diffusion agar technique. The screening results showed that most of the tested compounds exhibited wide spectrum activity against the test organisms and many of them revealed higher inhibitory effects against some organisms, when compared to standard antibacterial Chloramphenicol and antifungal Terbinafin. The structure activity relationship study was achieved via studying the effect of the aliphatic spacer length between the two ethereal oxygen atoms and the effect of functional groups attached to the terminal ends of the titled compounds. Thus, amomg compounds 1-10 that have short spacer between the phenoxy groups, at all concentrations, compound 5 with the dimethylaminophenyl group and compound 6 with the 2-hydroxyphenyl group exhibited the highest inhibitory effect. Among compounds 11-20 having medium spacer between the phenoxy groups, compound 12 having p-tolyl group, at all concentrations, exhibited the highest inhibitory effect. Among compounds 21-25 with long spacer between the phenoxy groups, compounds 21, with the phenyl group and compound 22 with the 4-methoxyphenyl group, at all concentrations, exhibited the highest inhibitory effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pollen Characterization of Woody Species of the Cross River National Park, Nigeria

J. K. Ebigwai, A. E. Egbe

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-26
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34094

Pollen description for fifty two woody species obtained from the Cross River National Park was made. Standard methods of pollen collection (conducted in 12 months), storage, preparation (Erdmann's method) and quality assurance protocols were employed. The study revealed 51% of species with tricolporate pollen, 13% with tricolpate pollen, 11% with triporate, 7% with monocolpate pollen, about 6% with inaperturate, 2% species each with zonocolpate, 4-colporate pollen and pantoporate pollen respectively. Reticulate, perforate and granulate ornamentations accounted for almost two-thirds of exine wall patters with baculate, straite, tectate, granulate scabrate and echinate made up the remainder. The shapes ranged from subprolate, prolate to prolate spheroidal, suboblate, oblate to oblate spheroidal and to peroblate to circular. All grain arrangements were monad. While forty-six of the species could easily be separated on the basis of pollen class, exine sculpturing and pollen shape, seven others could only be delimited based on slight differences on polar to equatorial ratio (P/E). All members with psilate sculpture were observed as species with abiotic agents (water and wind) of dispersal. These findings would undoubtedly enhance taxonomic practice in the Park.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity Assessment in Chickpea Using Morphological Characters and Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) Molecular Markers

Kamal Mohammad-Said Ahmad, Reza Talebi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34203

Genetic diversity in 35 chickpea genotypes were studied using morphological characters and 14 start codon targeted (SCoT) markers. Results of variance analysis and descriptive statistics for morphological traits indicated that the genotypes differed significantly for all studied characteristics. A dendrogram was constructed from morphological traits and the genotypes were grouped into six clusters. Fourteen SCoT primers yielded 135 bands, of which 100 bands were polymorphic. Number of polymorphic bands varied from 6 to 9, with an average of 7.14 bands per primer. PIC values ranged from 0.27 (SCoT22) to 0.46 (SCoT15), with an average value of 0.36 per primer. Cluster analysis Based on SCoT-PCR markers grouped 35 chickpea genotypes into three major clusters. Results showed a weak relationship between morphological divergence and molecular diversity pattern. Overall, we found relatively high genetic diversity in examined chickpea genotypes using morphological and SCoT molecular markers. Findings of this study can be useful for breeder for selective genotypes and specific traits in breeding programs in chickpea.

Open Access Review Article

Review: Current Diagnosis, Treatment and Management of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy

Francis Gregory R. Samonte

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34508

Polyradiculoneuropathy is a complex neuromuscular condition which has its etiology either acquired or inherited form. There are a number of neuromuscular conditions that can affect combinations of nerve root, junction, and peripheral nerve. Chronic demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy remains an important cause of radiculopathy in children and adults. There have been few studies involving the clinical management and diagnosis of this condition primarily as a result of its rare nature and difficulty in diagnosing, particularly at the onset of the disease. Failure to properly diagnose this condition can result in a prolonged and often protracted recovery process, which can limit a full recovery and lead to a severe functional disability. This review aims to provide proper diagnosis, treatment and management of chronic inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy.