Open Access Short Research Article

Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of a PolyHexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB) Solution: A Potential Root Canal Irrigant

Chandki Rita, Vineeta Nikhil, Sai Kalyan Surapaneni

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34141

Background: A polymeric biguanide ‘PolyHexaMethylene Biguanide’ (PHMB) was evaluated for its Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against ATCC reference laboratory strain of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis).

Methods: The MIC was determined using criteria’s laid down in DIN 58940-7 and 58940-8 and the corresponding supplementary sheets. Serial dilutions of PHMB were tested against E. faecalis in 96-well microtitre plates and MIC was read as the minimal concentration that allowed no visible growth.

Results: The MIC for PHMB against tested organism was found to be 2 gm/ L (0.2%).

Conclusion: Lower MIC value (2 gm/ L (0.2%)) of PHMB solution against E. faecalis is an indicator of its higher potency against the said microorganism and paves way to further research in its potential use as a root canal irrigant.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Durable and Regular Training in Hand-to-hand Fighting Section on Aggregative Platelet Activity of Persons at the First Mature Age

I. N. Medvedev

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35048

Platelets, as one of the main elements of a body’s homeostasis, support it on the whole and especially blood system. Through the modulation of their activity in response to different impacts they can influence the microcirculation and the level of tissue metabolism. The aim of our research is to determine platelet aggregative activity of healthy people of the first mature age which have long regular physical training in the section of hand-to-hand fighting. We took 112 healthy people of the first mature age, who had trained since childhood in hand-to-hand fighting section, into our experimental group. The control group was composed of 97 healthy people of the first mature age who had avoided any exercises during their lifetime. We applied biochemical, hematological and statistical methods of investigation. Physically trained people during the first mature age had stable low lipids’ peroxidation in platelets. This experimental group also had stable low platelet aggregation. The constancy of platelet aggregative response to strong and weak inductors of hand-to-hand fighters was provided by stable low activity of platelet receptors and intraplatelet mechanisms of their aggregation. Basing on the mentioned information, we could state that regular physical training in hand-to-hand fighting section since childhood provided the fighters of the first mature age with stable low platelet activity. It also helped to create better conditions for microcirculation and hemostasis. In people, who had avoided exercises, there was increase of platelet aggregation at the first mature age though they could have no complaints on their health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential of Somatic Embryogenesis in Elimination of East Africa Cassava Mosaic Virus from Infected Cassava Cultivars in Kenya

Gilbert Kipngeno Mutai, John M. Wagacha, Evans N. Nyaboga

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/31482

Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is an economically important disease limiting production of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in sub-Saharan Africa. Use of virus-free planting material is among the strategies for management of CMD. However, obtaining clean planting material for farmer-preferred varieties is often difficult. This study evaluated the efficacy of somatic embryogenesis to produce disease-free cassava planting materials from CMD-infected cultivars TME 14, Ex-Mariakani, Sagalato, Kibandameno and TMS 60444. Axillary buds of East Africa cassava mosaic virus (EACMV)-infected cassava nodal cuttings were cultured on MS salts with vitamins supplemented with 12 mg/l picloram for generation of primary somatic embryos (SE) which were subcultured onto the same fresh medium for generation of secondary SE. Primary and secondary SE were cultured separately onto MS supplemented with 1 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for induction of cotyledons and subsequent regeneration of plants on MS supplemented with 0.4 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to discern the presence of EACMV in regenerated plants. Plants regenerated from primary and secondary somatic embryos were 87.6% and 93.5% virus free, respectively, with the PCR technique of viral particle detection. The virus-free plants acclimatized in the glasshouse showed absence of viral symptoms morphologically. These findings demonstrated the effectiveness of somatic embryogenesis in elimination of EACMV from infected cassava plants to produce clean planting materials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Muscular Temporomandibular Disorder on Masticatory Muscles’ Thickness

Antuanett Mercedes Cornejo Lecaros, Marcelo Palinkas, Mariangela Salles Pereira Nassar, Paulo Batista de Vasconcelos, Bruno Ferreira, Selma Siéssere, Cristiane Aparecida Nogueira Bataglion, Simone Cecilio Hallak Regalo, César Bataglion

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35330

This study analyzed the impact of muscular temporomandibular disorder (TMD) on masseter and temporalis muscles’ thickness. Eighty subjects (aged 21–60, both male and female) with complete dentition were divided into study (those with muscular temporomandibular disorder, n=40) and control (healthy individuals, n=40) groups. TMD classification was done using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) questionnaire. Ultrasound images (via Sonosite Titan) were used to measure the thickness of masticatory muscles. Images were acquired in two conditions: with the mandibular muscles at rest and with dental clenching at maximum voluntary contraction. Muscle thickness data was tabulated and statistically analyzed (SPSS 22.0; t student test; (p ≤ .05). There were significant statistical differences in temporalis muscle thickness between the two study groups, with lower temporalis muscle thickness in the muscular TMD group. Our findings indicate that muscular TMD changed the morphology of subjects’ temporalis muscles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Platelet Parameters of Holstein Newborn Calves

N. V. Kutafina

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35214

The activity of cattle’s platelets is mostly connected with the level of their metabolic processes. It is especially important at the beginning of ontogenesis and can differ in different breeds. The aim of the study is to estimate platelets’ activity of healthy Holstein calves during the newborn phase. The study used 35 Holstein calves which were received from healthy cows with the normal course of in-calf state. The calves were observed and examined on the 1st-2nd, 3rd-4th, 5th-6th, 7th-8th and 9th-10th days of life. We used biochemical, hematological and statistical methods of investigation. During the newborn phase the calves had a trend to weakening of platelets’ aggregation in response to all the applied inductors. Discocytes’ content in blood of Holstein calves during the newborn phase had an upward trend. The sum of platelets’ active forms in their case had an inclination for lowering on 7.6%. The number of freely moving little and large platelets’ aggregates in blood also had a downward trend during the first 10 days of ontogenesis. It was evidently provided by a trend to weakening of thromboxane synthesis in platelets of calves and decreasing of adenosine phosphates’ content in them at inclination for weakening of their secretion. The quantity of actin and myosin in platelets of observed calves on the 1st-2nd days of life was little and had an inclination for lowering in the course of the newborn phase. Having conducted the given study, we can consider that Holstein newborn calves are characterized by high functional perfection of platelet hemostasis. Low intravascular activity of platelets in Holstein newborn calves provides optimum of perfusion and metabolism in all the internals which are necessary for fast growth and development of animals.