Open Access Original Research Article

African Polyherbal Formulation Possesses Chemopreventive and Chemotherapeutic Effects on Benzene- Induced Leukemia in Wistar Rats

Akanni E. Olufemi, Faremi Ayodeji, Akanni R. Adekemi, Bamisaye E. Oluseyi, Adewumi F. Ajoke, Agboola O. Aminat, Liasu O. Idris

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34773

Background: Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are effective cancer treatment options but they are accompanied by serious side effects and complications such as systemic cytotoxicity, chemo- or radio-resistance. Therefore, more effective therapies are sorely needed. This study investigated the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of a polyherbal formulation on benzene induced leukemia in Wistar rats. The polyherbal formulation is composed of fruits such as Orange, Lime, Lemon, Pineapple, Grape and Vegetables like; Pumpkin leave, Garden egg suspended in honey medium.

Methods: Leukemia was induced by injecting 0.2 ml of benzene solution intravenously through the tail of young rats at 48 h intervals for four times. Leukemia developed in 92% of rats some weeks after the last benzene injection and following up weekly observation for leukemia development in appropriate rat groups. Leukemia burden was assessed using indicator parameters such as total leukocyte, red blood cell count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin concentration. Exactly 0.48 ml of the polyherbal formulation was administered orally by gavage using oral cannular once daily post leukemia induction for four weeks.

Results: Leukemia induction reflected in significant reduction in hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, red cell count and a marked and a significant increase in leukocyte count over the control (p < 0.05). There is significant difference between the chemopreventive group and chemotherapeutic (leukemia positive group treated with poly-herbal formulation) and the leukemia positive control group untreated.

Conclusion: This study reveals profound activity of the poly-herbal formulation at preventing and reversing experimentally developed leukemia in the rat groups, hence the ability of the polyherbal formulation in alleviating the cancer symptoms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Descriptive Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Goats from Small Farms in Bangkok and Vicinity and the Associated Risk Factors

L. M. Azrul, K. Poungpong, S. Jittapalapong, S. Prasanpanich

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34932

The objectives of this preliminary study were to assess the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goats from sixteen (n=16) selected small farms around Bangkok and vicinity, and in addition, to provide the infection characterization based on parasite egg’s morphology in this central region of Thailand. A total of 185 goats (dairy and meat) aged between 6 to 30 months were involved in this study. Fresh fecal samples were collected directly from goats’ rectum during the sampling period from September to October 2014. Fecal samples were examined for eggs and cysts of parasites byfloatation method with saturated salt solution and counted by Modified McMaster technique. Total flock prevalence for this sampling area was 100% with 68.65% individual prevalence. From total animal, 29.73% were involved with mixed infection and 28.65% and 10.27% were infected with single type of parasites; helminth and protozoa, respectively. The prevalence according to the species based on egg’s morphology were; nematodes including strongyles group (52.43%) and Strongyloides papillosus (16.76%), cestodes including Moniezia expansa (5.41%) and protozoa including Giardia spp. cyst (5.95%), Entamoeba spp. cyst (24.32%) and unsporulated coccidian oocyst, Eimeria spp. (41.08%). The present study has confirmed the infection of gastrointestinal parasites in Bangkok and vicinity with strongyle group as a dominant species. There were also two significant risk factors related to infection; goats’ gender and type of goat reared in farms (P<0.05).

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Effects of Fractions of Jatropha curcas (Linn) Leaves on Mitochondrial Permeability Transition in Rat Liver

Olubukola T. Oyebode, Wuraola R. Owaboye, Opeyemi F. Akinbisoye, Olufunso O. Olorunsogo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35882

Aim: Modulation of the opening of mitochondrial Permeability Transition (mPT) pore is an important   pharmacological target in drug design because the release of cytochrome C upon the opening of the pore is sine qua non for mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis to take place. Jatropha curcas has been shown to inhibit the growth of tumorigenic cells in different cancer cells. It is not known whether the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis is implicated in the mechanism of action of J. curcas as an anti-tumour agent. This study evaluated the effects of varying concentrations of the methanol extract of Jatropha curcas and its fractions on mPT pore and cytochrome C release.

Methodology: Mitochondrial permeability transition, mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, cytochrome C release were evaluated spectrophotometrically.

Results: Chloroform fraction of J. curcas (CFJC) significantly induced pore opening at 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 µg/mL by 2.2, 3.5, 8.5, 11.0 and 11.7 folds, respectively in the absence of calcium when compared with other fractions. In contrast calcium -induced pore opening was inhibited by all the fractions. Interestingly, all the fractions also inhibited Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in a concentration-dependent manner. Mitochondrial ATPase activity was enhanced to varying extents by these fractions with CFJC having the highest stimulatory effects. The concentration of cytochrome C released from mitochondria exposed to CFJC at 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90µg/mL were significantly (p < 0.05) elevated by 5, 10, 12.5, 14.2 and 17 folds, respectively when compared with control.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that CFJC, the most potent fraction may contain certain bioactive agent(s) that modulates mPT pore opening and possibly induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis via release of cytochrome C and reduction of intracellular ATP levels. Jatropha curcas may therefore prove useful in drug development in diseases characterized by insufficient apoptosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oligonol Supplementation Decreases Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in a Sample of Overweight and Obese Saudi Females

Suhad M. Bahijri, Anwar Borai, Zuhier Awan, Ghada Ajabnoor, Gehan A. Hegazy, Lubna Alsheikh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35705

Aims: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the primary cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with metabolic syndrome (MS) increasing their risk. We aimed to investigate the effects of oligonol on cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy overweight and obese Saudi females.

Study Design: A double blind case/control design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out during December 2015 to June 2016 in the Food, Nutrition and life style research unit, King Fahd Medical Research Centre.

Subjects and Methods: A double blind case/control design was employed. 60 young, apparently healthy overweight and obese females were enrolled, and divided randomly into two groups to take either Oligonol or placebo for 12 weeks without dietary or lifestyle restrictions. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were measured and fasting blood samples taken before, and after supplement. Glucose, lipid profile, Apolipoprotein B, Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured, and Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) calculated in all blood samples. Obtained data was used to diagnose MS.

Results: 25 subjects in placebo group and 22 in Oligonol group completed the study. No adverse effects were noted. Oligonol improved mean triglycerides, AIP, and hs-CRP, and decreased the number of subjects with high triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, and WC, hence MS.

Conclusion: Oligonol appears to decrease the risk of CVD in obese and overweight Saudi females by controlling or decreasing components of the metabolic syndrome, hs-CRP, and AIP.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Poultry Production System on Infection with Internal Parasites in “Baladi” Layer Hens of Northern West Bank, Palestine

Rateb Othman, Jihad Abdallah

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35565

Aims: To study the effects of poultry production systems on prevalence of internal parasites in hens of the Baladi breed in Northern West Bank, Palestine. The study is important to provide basic information essential to design appropriate parasitic control and prevention measures.

Methodology: A survey study of internal parasites in Baladi layer hens was conducted in five villages of Northern West Bank, Palestine. Fecal samples were collected between September 2015 and April 2016 from 240 Baladi hens raised under four production systems (single-tier cages, double-deck cages, floor, and free range systems). The samples were examined for infection with internal parasites using the sedimentation and flotation techniques. Infection rates and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated and comparisons among production systems were performed using logistic regression and Pearson’s Chi-square test.

Results: The results showed that 102 samples (42.5%) were positive for one or more types of internal parasites. The types of detected internal parasites were nematodes (25.4% Ascaridia galli, 11.7% Heterakis gallinarum, and 3.3% Capillaria spp.), cestodes (Raillietina spp., 8.3%), and protozoa (Eimeria spp., 4.2%). Of the parasitic infections, 73.5% were nematodes, 10.8% were cestodes, 6.9% protozoa, and 8.8% were mixed species. Prevalence rates were 23.3%, 40.0%, 50.0% and 56.7% in single-tier cages, double-deck cages, floor system and the free range system, respectively. Hens raised in double-deck cages had odds ratio of infection of 1.999 (P = .08) compared to single cages, while hens raised in floor and free range systems had odds ratios 2.999 (P = .005) and 3.923 (P < .001) compared to single cage system.

Conclusion: This study showed that hens reared in floor and free range systems had higher risk of parasitic infection than hens reared in cages indicating a higher need for appropriate prevention and control measures in these systems compared to cage systems.